The magnitude of cumulative atmospheric CO2, and increasing rate of emissions, are warming Earth and changing entire life-zones as both the heat and the CO2 enter the oceans. Sequestering CO2 already emitted, as well as eliminating / sequestering future CO2 emissions, are needed to restore ocean ecosystems and re-stabilize our climate. The combined volume to be removed is estimated at 3,200 gigatons CO2 by 2100 – 40 gigatons per year for 80 years if we start today.
Our innovations include:
• The Oxygenator: our technology that restores the ocean ecosystem while naturally sequestering CO2 in the deep ocean for millennia.
• Big Data From Ultra-High-Density Ocean Sensing: with widespread deployment of biogeochemical (“BGC”) ARGO robotic floats, we achieve an affordable big-data network of ocean data.
• Stock For Carbon: An alternative funding mechanism about 20-times larger than attainable from global imposition of carbon taxes, to fund negative emissions technologies such as The Oxygenator.
• Sustainable Per-Capita Annual CO2 Emissions: A program which achieves sustainable global per capita annual CO2 emissions by enabling corporate responsibility for employees/dependents’ emissions.
The Oxygenator: All-natural Ocean Ecosystem Restoration and Biological Co2 Sequestration In Deep Ocean.
According to Professor Ulf Riebesell at German Marine Research Institute-Kiel (GEOMAR): “in times of climate change artificial up/downwelling can serve as a conservation and/or restoration measure. This relates to - among other factors - the projected decline in ocean productivity due to enhanced water column stratification via surface ocean warming. As declining primary production will likely be amplified via the food web, those changes will be felt much stronger at higher trophic levels. Artificial upwelling can contribute to counteracting this trend.”
Using endless free ocean waves as the energy source, our “Oxygenator” upwelling/downwelling pumps bring up nutrient-enriched water to the sunlit upper ocean, triggering blooms of phytoplankton (single-cell plants) which must absorb dissolved CO2 to metabolize the nutrients. Forming the base of the ocean food chain, phytoplankton are consumed by higher trophic species, with the carbon-rich detritus sinking by gravity with some converted into long-term “recalcitrant” CO2 by the microbial carbon pump - isolated from the atmosphere for thousands of years.
When scaled-up across the open oceans far from land, up to 1,800 gigatons can be naturally sequestered by 2100 using this technology.
Big Data From Ultra-High-Density Ocean Sensing.
To measure the outcomes and enable early warning of unintended consequences, we will install one “BGC-ARGO” per nine square kilometers of open ocean where Oxygenators are deployed. BGC-ARGO’s are programmed to descend 2,000 meters then slowly rise to the surface while measuring ocean biogeochemistry. Reaching the surface, this data is up-linked to the open-access data center in France.
For more details about ARGO, please see https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00502/full.
Stock For Carbon.
Even if negative emissions technologies achieve the hoped-for but not-yet-demonstrated price of $100 per ton CO2, the aggregate cost to remove 3,200 gigatons by 2100 is still a staggering $320,000,000,000,000 ($320,000 billion = $320 trillion).
Raising this amount from a global tax on carbon is politically impossible, administratively impractical, and economically unsound as it directly and indirectly devastates current income. A funding mechanism other than a carbon tax is critically needed. (Not to mention, a carbon tax only reduces current emissions, not past).
Our "Stock For Carbon" taps into the public equity markets whose value is about 20-fold larger than aggregated current income (e.g. price to earnings – P/E ratio). Coming off balance sheets rather than income statements, this is the big pot of money needed to fund negative CO2 emissions and restore a stable climate and ocean ecosystems.
By subscribing to Stock For Carbon, public corporations fund the deployment of negative emissions technologies such as The Oxygenator - gaining strategic, financial, and marketing benefits in the process.
Stock For Carbon enables the corporation to redress its historic CO2 emissions and become cumulatively net-negative in about 15 years. Not being paid in cash, the corporation maintains its working capital, preserving jobs, R&D, and growth.
Shareholders initially are diluted but the improved sustainability results in higher stock price, P/E ratio, and shareholder ROI. Our case study using 3M public data is shown.
Achieving Sustainable Per-Capita Annual CO2 Emissions In Advanced Economies.
Corporations which subscribe to Stock For Carbon to become net-negative CO2 may elect to reduce per capita emissions of their employees and dependents who live in “high CO2” countries.
For example, in 2019 3M Corporation (St. Paul, MN) employed 93,500 persons worldwide. We estimate their employees’ CO2 emissions totaled 1,137,000 tons – about 856,000 tons above sustainable (annual 3 tons per capita). Assuming average two dependents per employee, this amounts to 2.5 million tons excess CO2 in addition to 3M’s 6.2 million tons (2019) scope 1 and scope 2 corporate emissions to be removed and funded under our Stock For Carbon mechanism. Some high-CO2 countries are shown adjacent.